Basic Numbers: Blackwell

Blackwell, Oklahoma-Chaco Road

Lets visit Chaco Canyon Park (Northwest New Mexico) from Blackwell, OK. Based from the use of similar buildings by current Puebloan peoples, these rooms had been areas that are probably common for rites and gatherings, with a fireplace in the middle and room access supplied by a ladder extending through a smoke hole in the ceiling. Large kivas, or "great kivas," were able to accommodate hundreds of people and stood alone when not integrated into a housing that is large, frequently constituting a center location for surrounding villages made of (relatively) little buildings. To sustain large buildings that are multi-story held rooms with floor spaces and ceiling heights far greater than those of pre-existing houses, Chacoans erected gigantic walls employing a "core-and-veneer" method variant. An core that is inner of sandstone with mud mortar created the core to which slimmer facing stones were joined to produce a veneer. These walls were approximately one meter thick at the base, tapering as they ascended to conserve weight--an indication that builders planned the upper stories during the original building in other instances. While these mosaic-style veneers remain evident today, adding to these structures' remarkable beauty, Chacoans plastered plaster to many interior and exterior walls after construction was total to preserve the mud mortar from water harm. Starting with Chetro Ketl's building, Chaco Canyon, projects for this magnitude needed a huge number of three vital materials: sandstone, water, and lumber. Employing stone tools, Chacoans mined then molded and faced sandstone from canyon walls, choosing hard and dark-colored tabular stone at the most effective of cliffs during initial building, going as styles altered during later construction to softer and bigger tan-colored stone lower down cliffs. Liquid, essential to build mud mortar and plaster combined with sand, silt and clay, was marginal and accessible only during short and summer that is typically heavy.   In addition to sandstone that is natural, precipitation was caught of wells and dammed places in the arroyo (a running stream) which sculpted the canyon, chaco wash, and ruined by a series of ditches. Timber sources, which were essential for the building of the roofs and top levels, were formerly abundant in the canyon but vanished during the Chacoan fluorescence owing to deforestation and drought. For that reason, Chacoans trekked 80 kilometers on base to southern and western coniferous woods, chopping down trees then peeling and letting them dry for a long time, before returning and transporting them all back to the canyon. That is no undertaking that is minor the hauling of each tree took a group of workers for many times and during the three century of building and handling associated with about twelve large home and big kiva sites in the canyon consumed throughout 200,000 trees. The Chaco Canyon's Designed Landscape. Although the Chaco Canyon included a large architectural density never seen previously in the area, the canyon was a tiny part in the heart of a wide linked area forming the civilisation of Chaco. Almost 200 settlements with large homes and kivas with the same style that is characteristic architecture as those who work in the canyon existed beyond the canyon, but on a lesser scale. While those internet sites were the essential frequent when you look at the San Juan Basin, they comprised a wider region of the Colorado Plateau than the English area. The ground below, some adding steel or steel storage bays for support in order to aid to connect these settlements to the canyon and to each other, Chacoans built an extensive system of roadways by digging and leveling. These roads were regularly seen in large residences in the canyon and beyond and radiated amazingly straight.   Chacoans built ramps or stairs into the wall space of high cliffs to maintain the straightness of the roadways, even if the steep terrains found in the American Southwest, such as mesas, buttes, and other landforms, e.g., the American Southwest's mesas, intersected with their route. This approach was extremely difficult and roads that are many not large enough become used for foot transport. Many roadways were also much wider than necessary. Some good houses had been placed within sight of each other and nearby shrines. This allowed for faster communication and the ability to signal distant areas via sunlight reflection or fire. Fajada Butte occupies a dominant position in Chaco Canyon. Aligning roadways and structures with the cardinal directions as well as the positions of sun and moon in critical seasons like solstices and equinoxes has been a common practice. This added structure to the Chacoan landscape. For instance, the front wall of Pueblo Bonito's great house is aligned north-south and east-west, while the location lies west of Chetro Ketl. Casa Rinconada is a grand kiva of 19 meters in diameter, found within the canyon. It has two T-shaped internal doors that are arranged on a line that is north-south two doors outside aligned eastward. The rising sun can just pass through Casa Rinconada during the morning of this equinox. (Restoration work carried out in the canyon does not indicate if this alignment was current).

The typical family unit size in Blackwell, OK is 3.11 family members, with 69.2% being the owner of their own residences. The mean home cost is $61372. For those leasing, they spend an average of $773 per month. 39.6% of homes have 2 incomes, and a typical domestic income of $42371. Average individual income is $25753. 19.6% of citizens live at or beneath the poverty line, and 23.8% are disabled. 12.5% of citizens are ex-members associated with military.

The labor force participation rate in Blackwell is 56.3%, with an unemployment rate of 10.8%. For anyone located in the labor force, the average commute time is 18.2 minutes. 5% of Blackwell’s community have a grad diploma, and 9% have a bachelors degree. For all those without a college degree, 36.3% attended at least some college, 37.1% have a high school diploma, and only 12.8% have an education significantly less than twelfth grade. 15.6% are not included in medical health insurance.